Skip to content

6 fundamental UX design principles you must know

crayon doodle about aesthetic design

User experience (UX) design principles are fundamental aspects of creating products that are easy to use, visually appealing, and enjoyable to interact with. Here are some key concepts to understand while creating a product for people to interact with.

User-centered design

Crayon drawing about user centered design
User gives feedback and developer improves the system

User-centered design is a design approach that focuses on the needs, goals, and preferences of the user. It involves considering the user’s perspective at every stage of the design process, from research and planning to test and iteration.

User-centered design is about creating products that are easy to use, efficient, and enjoyable to the users. To do this, designers often follow a process that includes the following steps:

  • Research: This involves learning about the user and their needs, goals, and preferences through methods such as user interviews, surveys, and usability testing.
  • Planning: Based on the research findings, designers create a plan for the product, including its features and functionality.
  • Design: The designers create initial design concepts and prototypes, which may include wireframes, mockups, and other visual representations of the product.
  • Testing: The product is tested with users to gather feedback and identify any problems or areas for improvement.
  • Iteration: Based on the feedback from testing, the designers make changes and improvements to the product. This process should be repeated until the product meets the needs and goals of the user.

The product should be focused on solving specific problems that users face during the interaction.

With keeping all this process in mind, designers should create user journeys for their product from the start to end of the interaction. For this, you can use mind map tools like MindMeister and Lucidchart


crayon doodle about functionality in design
Proper functionality of the system is required along with what user needs.

A product should perform the tasks that it was designed to do in a reliable and efficient way.

Functionality in UX design refers to the way in which a product or service performs its intended tasks. It is an important aspect of user experience (UX) design, as users expect products and services to work effectively and efficiently in order to meet their needs and goals.

There are several key principles of functionality in UX design:

  • Usefulness: The product or service must be useful to the user and provide value.
  • Ease of use: The product or service should be easy to use, with intuitive interfaces and clear instructions.
  • Reliability: The product or service should be reliable and consistently perform its intended tasks.
  • Efficiency: The product or service should allow users to accomplish their tasks quickly and efficiently.
  • Learnability: The product or service should be easy to learn and use, even for first-time users.

In order to achieve good functionality in UX design, designers must consider the needs and goals of the user, as well as the context of the product or service.

They must also ensure that the product or service is tested and refined to ensure it meets the functional requirements of the user.


Crayon doodle about simplicity in design
Keep it simple stupid.

A product should have a clear and straightforward interface and minimal clutter.

Add simplicity to your UX design using these methods:

  • By reducing unnecessary elements and distractions on the page, you can help users focus on the most important tasks and information.
  • Use plain, clear and concise language that is easy to understand, and avoid using jargon or technical terms that may be confusing to users.
  • Organizing information in a logical and intuitive way: Group related information together and use clear headings and labels to help users find what they need quickly.
  • Providing clear and consistent navigation: Use clear and consistent navigation to help users move easily between different pages and sections of the site.
  • Using whitespace effectively: Use whitespace effectively to help create a clean and uncluttered design that is easy to read and navigate.

Aesthetic design

crayon doodle about aesthetic design
User seems pretty impressed about the aesthetic look of his profile

Aesthetics in UX design refers to the visual appearance and style of a user interface. It includes elements such as colour, typography, layout, and imagery. It plays a crucial role in creating a cohesive and attractive design that enhances the user experience.

Here are some key elements to consider when designing the aesthetics of a user interface:

  • Colour: Colour is a powerful design tool that can create mood, establish hierarchy, and draw attention to specific elements. It’s important to choose a colour palette that is appropriate for the brand and the purpose of the interface.
  • Typography: Typography refers to the use of typefaces in design to attain user attention and improve readability. Choosing the right font and using it consistently can help create a cohesive and professional look.
  • Layout: The layout of a user interface refers to the way that elements are arranged on the screen. A well-designed layout can guide the user’s attention and make the interface easy to use.
  • Imagery: Imagery, including photos and graphics, can add visual interest and help convey a message or theme. It’s important to choose high-quality images that are relevant to the content and purpose of the interface.


crayon doodle about usability in design
Bad usability confuse user and results in high bounce rate

Usability in UX design is like the layout of a well-designed house. It is the ease with which a person can navigate and use the space. Just as a well-designed house has clear and logical pathways, a well-designed website or app should have intuitive and straightforward navigation.

Imagine trying to find your way through a house with cluttered and disorganized rooms. It would be difficult to find what you are looking for and you may become frustrated. Similarly, a website or app with poor usability will be confusing and frustrating for users, causing them to leave the site or app.

On the other hand, a house with a clear and logical layout is easy to navigate and use. The same goes for a website or app with good usability. It allows users to easily find what they are looking for and interact with the site or app without confusion.

How to improve usability in UX design

One key aspect of usability is usability testing, which involves evaluating a product or service by having real users complete tasks and providing feedback. This allows designers to identify any issues or difficulties users may have, and make changes to improve the overall usability of the product.

Other important considerations for usability in UX design include:

  • Consistency: Ensuring that the design and layout are consistent across different pages and screens so that users do not have to relearn how to use the product each time they encounter something new.
  • Feedback: Provide users with feedback about their actions, such as confirmation messages or error messages. With this, they know what is happening and what to do next.
  • Learnability: Making it easy for users to learn how to use the product, through clear instructions, intuitive navigation, and helpful onboarding experiences.
  • Efficiency: Ensuring that users can complete tasks quickly and efficiently, without having to perform unnecessary steps or search for information.

Usability is a crucial element of UX design, as it helps to ensure that users can accomplish their goals with minimal frustration and effort


crayon doodle about accessibility in design
Take as many people as you can in consideration including specially abled people.

Accessibility in UX design refers to the practice of designing products, devices, services, or environments so that people, including those with disabilities or impairments, can use them well.

This includes ensuring that products are easy to use, navigate, and understand for people with a wide range of abilities and disabilities.

To ensure that products are accessible, designers should consider the following best practices:

  • Provide alternative text which is a written description of an image that is displayed when the image cannot be seen.
  • This is help users who are blind or have low vision, as they may be using a screen reader to access the content.
  • Colour shouldn’t be the only way to convey information This can be difficult for users with colourblindness to understand. Instead, use other visual cues, such as shapes or patterns, to convey meaning.
  • Make sure buttons and links are large enough to be easily tapped to help users with mobility impairments or who may be using a device with a small screen.
  • Use headings and subheadings to divide the text into sections. This makes it easier for users with cognitive impairments or who have difficulty reading large blocks of text to understand.

By considering these practices, designers can create products that are more accessible and user-friendly for a wider range of users.

These are some basic and fundamental aspects of UX design that a designer must know.

Hope you enjoyed the content. If you liked the article, comment and share.

You may want to subscribe to my newsletter related to Design, Tech and Art.

Article and illustrations by: Ankit Upadhyay

See more Illustrations like these, here.